Universal Design & the ADA Design for Every Body

The idea that ‘form follows function’ is one of the basic concepts underlying nearly every design discipline—but function for whom? For many people living with disabilities, it often seems that ‘function’ covers a very narrow range of ability—rendering many forms clumsy at best, and completely useless at worst. While a cascading stairway might provide drama to a public space, for example, it may present an insurmountable obstacle to anyone making use of a wheelchair or other mobility aid. 

While in the past accessibility for differently-abled individuals may have been an afterthought (if it was a thought at all), in recent years, architects and designers have begun to change their view of how to best achieve form and function for everyone, regardless of age or ability. Two key drivers of that change were the adaptation of the theory of Universal Design, and the passage and implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

Universal Design

“Universal Design was developed in 1997,” says Eric Cohen, senior associate principal at Ethelind Coblin Architect, an architecture and design firm based in New York with clients throughout New England as well. “It was the brainchild of a working group of architects, product designers, engineers, and environmental design researchers led by Ronald Mace at North Carolina State University. 

Universal Design is the design and composition of an environment so that it can be accessed, understood, and used to the greatest extent possible by all people regardless of their age, size, and ability. It is a fundamental process of good design.” 

Cohen goes on to explain that there are seven principles of Universal Design: equitable use, flexibility in use, simple and intuitive use, perceptible information, tolerance for error, low physical effort, size and space for approach and use. Taken together and applied, these principles ensure that an environment can be used in the most independent and natural way, in the widest possible range of situations, by the broadest array of users, without special adaptation, modification, or specialized solutions. They can be applied to evaluate existing designs, to guide new ones, or to educate designers and consumers. 


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  • I appreciated your column on "Universal Design and the ADA". While I do not have mobility issues, at this point in time, I am a person with "low vision", but not blind.. I am wondering when we will get to a point of understanding that we need to approach Technology as an area that needs MUCH work in adapting to the differences in accessing technology, ie. software, operating systems, decisions on "form vs function" in the technology field. As we age, levels of expertise in vision, hearing, and thee like become more difficult. The technology seems to have a focus on making things "pretty", i.e. fancy print,, colorful backgrounds, light print (unreadable) So, while thee design may be attractive, is is NOT functional, at all, to a great many people. There is a very low level of adaptability in technology. Or, when there is improvement, it is attainable only by "add-ons", which are not very customizable. Microsoft gets high rates for their "Read Aloud" as it can be made to do what the user wants it to do. Anyway, I would like to see the ADA become more involved in the technology and help to make it easier for people to read their computer. Leave it basic, black/white and give the option of changing the design to the user!!! Thank yoiu. .